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In the Rigveda, there is nothing to prove that the king was regarded as the owner of the land or the owner of the state. The Rigvedic hymns simply show that the kings received bal (generally translated as voluntary tribute) as guardian of the people and not as being the head of the state. In later period, we find the references that land was divided into four classes viz., pasture land, homestead land, the arable land and the forest.

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Rajeev Pratap. (2020). State or Royal ownership of land in ancient India:A Historical Perspective. History Research Journal, 5(6), 2927-2932. Retrieved from