Main Article Content


The paper discusses the ethnic conglomeration and its impacts on Afghan political system. Ethnic division was explicitly visible during the 2004 Presidential elections in Afghanistan. For the unity that could have come from 2001, the election results shattered any hope that the country had overcome its fractures. The winner needed to find a way to unite a country that could not be more divided.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sarngadharan, D. R. C., NP, M. S., Zaman, M. F., & Isak, M. A. M. (2019). Ethnic Challenges and Democratic Consolidation in Afghanistan. History Research Journal, 5(6), 1469-1482. Retrieved from